Bible Chronology
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Page Updated  02/01/12

Bible Chronology

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Top of PageTop of PageOld Testament Chronology

There was no uniform chronological system in the ancient Near East, and writers often sought to glorify the subjects about whom they were writing by grossly exaggerating their length of life (one king in an ancient document is said to have reigned for 36,000 years). Dates of earlier epochs can sometimes be derived in general terms from inscriptions and writings found in Egypt and Mesopotamia, and in more precise terms in later periods from Syria, Greece and Asia Minor. The dates offered below reflect the changing results from analysis of the ancient sources.

The most likely time of the events just prior to and during the Exodus of Israel from Egypt is the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty: ca. 1350–1200 bce. The following probable dates may be inferred from this chronological base:

2500–2000 bce

Patriarchal period

1700–1300

Sojourn of the tribes of Israel in Egypt

1250–1200

The Exodus and the period in the Sinai

1200–1100

Entry and occupation of the land of Canaan

1050–1000

Reign of Saul

The first reasonably firm dates in Israel's history begin with the reign of David:

1000–962 bce

Reign of David

962–922

Reign of Solomon

The division of Israel into the northern kingdom and the southern kingdom (based in Jerusalem) begins in 924 bce.

 

Judah

 

Israel

924–907 bce

Rehoboam

924–903 bce

Jeroboam I

907–906

Abijah

 

 

905–874

Asa

 

 

 

 

903–902

Nadab

 

 

902–886

Baasha

 

 

886

Elah

 

 

885

Zimri

 

 

885–873

Omri

874–850

Jehoshaphat

 

 

 

 

873–851

Ahab

850–843

Joram

851–849

Ahaziah

 

 

849–843

Jehoram

843

Ahaziah

 

 

843–837

Athaliah

843–816

Jehu

837–?

Joash

816–800

Jehoahaz

?

Amaziah

 

 

?

Azariah or Uzziah

 

 

 

 

800–785

Jehoash

?–742

Jotham

785–745

Jeroboam II

 

 

745

Zechariah

 

 

745

Shallum

742–727

Ahaz

745–736

Menahem

 

 

736–735

Pekahiah

 

 

735–732

Pekah

727–698

Hezekiah

732–723

Hoshea

 

 

722

Fall of Israel (Samaria)

697–642

Manasseh

 

 

642–640

Amon

 

 

639–609

Josiah

 

 

609

Jehoahaz

 

 

608–598

Jehoiakim

 

 

597

Jehoiachin

 

 

597

Babylonian Conquest of Jerusalem

 

 

597–586

Zedekiah

 

 

586

Destruction of Jerusalem

 

 

The exile of Israel in Assyria after the fall of Samaria in 722, and the exile of Judah in Babylon after the fall of Jerusalem in 586, came to an end over a period of time when the Persians allowed the Israelites to return to their land. This seems to have been a protracted process, which took place in four stages:

  1. A return under Cyrus about 538; work began on the Temple.
  2. A return under Darius I around 500; Temple completed; support from the prophets Haggai and Zechariah.
  3. A return under Artaxerxes I, led by Nehemiah, around 440.
  4. A return under Artaxerxes II, led by Ezra after 400.

After the invasion of the Middle East by Alexander the Great (334–330), followed by the dividing up of the region by his successors, Palestine was alternately controlled by the Syria-based Seleucids and the Egypt-based Ptolemies. The Jewish priests continued to preside over the Temple in Jerusalem until the Seleucid ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, intervened to convert the temple to a shrine in his own honor, and began to designate the high-priest.

175 bce

Onias deposed by Antiochus, Jason high-priest.

172

Menelaus, Jason's brother, nominated high-priest.

172

Onias III murdered about this time.

169

Jason seizes Jerusalem, which Antiochus attacks on his return from Egypt and pollutes the Temple.

168

Daily sacrifice interrupted.

166

Battle of Emmaus. Victory of Judas Maccabaeus.

165

Dedication of the Temple.

163

Lysias defeated by Judas at Bethsura. Alcimus, high-priest. Menelaus put to death.

161

Nicanor defeated at Capharsalama. Death of Judas Maccabaeus at Eleasa.

160

Decree of the Roman Senate in favor of the Jews.

159

Death of Alcimus.

156

Jonathan, brother of Judas, ruler of Judaea.

153

Jonathan made high-priest by Balas.

150

Jonathan honored by Philometor and Balas.

143

Jonathan put to death by Trypho. Simon, high-priest.

142

Simon, "Prince of the Jews." Jews allowed to coin money.

135

Murder of Simon. John Hyrcanus, high-priest.

109

Hyrcanus wars on Samaria and destroys the temple on Gerizim.

106

Hyrcanus dies. Aristobulus (his son), first king of the Jews.

105

Alexander Jannaeus made king of the Jews.

94

The Pharisees hostile to Jannaeus.

93

War of Jannaeus in Gilead and Moab.

88

Jannaeus defeated at Shechem.

78

Death of Jannaeus. Alexandra, his widow, rules after him. Hyrcanus II, high-priest.

69

Aristobulus II seizes the government.

64

Disputes between Aristobulus and Hyrcanus.

63

Jerusalem taken by Pompey. Hyrcanus again high-priest.

54

Palestine divided into five districts.

51

Crassus plunders the Temple.

48

Antipater made procurator of Judaea.

44

Hyrcanus, "Prince of the Jews."

41

Herod and Phasael, joint tetrarchs of Judaea.

40

Herod flees to Rome. Antigonus set up in his stead.

38

Herod marries Mariamne.

37

Herod takes Jerusalem.

29

Mariamne put to death.

25

Herod rebuilds Samaria.

17

Herod restores the Temple.

6

Alexander and Aristobulus put to death.

Top of PageTop of PageNew Testament Chronology

 

Christian History

Jewish History

4

Birth of Jesus Christ.

Death of Herod the Great.

ce

 

 

6

 

Banishment of Archelaus.

7

 

Coponius procurator of Judaea; Annas high-priest.

8

Jesus at Jerusalem in the Temple.

Cyrenius completes 'the taxing' commenced 4 bce

17

 

Caiaphas, high-priest.

26

Beginning of the ministry of the Baptist

Pontius Pilate, procurator.

30

The Crucifixion.

 

33

 

Death of Herod Philip.

35

Conversion of Paul.

Pontius Pilate exiled.

37

 

Jonathan, high-priest. Herod Agrippa obtains the tetrarchy of Herod Philip. Marcellus, procurator.

38

 

Josephus born.

39

The Churches have rest.

Antipas deposed. Agrippa made tetrarch of Galilee.

41

 

Agrippa receives Judaea.

44

Death of James the brother of John.

Death of Herod Agrippa I. Cuspius Fadus, procurator.

45

Paul's first Missionary Tour.

 

46

 

Tiberius Alexander, procurator.

48

 

Ventidius Cumanus, procurator.

49

Council of Jerusalem.

 

50

1 and 2 Thessalonians written.

 

51

 

Claudius [or Antoninus (?)] Felix, procurator.

55

1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Romans.

 

57

Paul a prisoner at Caesarea.

 

58

Paul sent to Rome.

Porcius Festus, procurator.

59

Paul leaves Melita for Rome.

Joseph, son of Simon, high-priest.

60

Philippians, Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon.

Albinus, procurator.

61

Close of the history of the Acts of the Apostles.

 

62

 

Gessius Florus, procurator.

64

Titus, 1 and 2 Timothy.

Jewish war commences.

65

Martyrdom of Peter and Paul.

Capture of Jotapata by Vespasian.

70

Christians retire to Pella.

Siege and capture of Jerusalem.

95

Persecution of Christians by Domitian.

 

96

John probably still alive.

 

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Page Updated  02/01/12

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